APARECIDA RODRIGO ALVAREZ PDF

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Herunterladen oder Online lesen Aparecida Rodrigo Alvarez PDF, "Aparecida – A biografia da santa que perdeu a cabeça, ficou negra, foi roubada, cobiçada. Rodrigo Alvarez, autor dos best-sellers Aparecida, Maria e que teve acesso ao “baú” dos milagres do Santuário Nacional de Aparecida. Part 1 · {PDF Epub} Download GABON / SAO TOME ET PRINCIPE / by Download Aparecida: a biografia da santa qu by Rodrigo Alvarez · {PDF Epub}.


Aparecida Rodrigo Alvarez Pdf

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In Brazil, where some protozoan infections are endemic, these aetiological agents and their vectors have attracted considerable interest from researchers and students. The evolution of science is the pillar that provides a solid foundation for the development of society by creating the means to face the challenges ahead Cordova et al.

The study of the origin of a scientific area and the identification of the motives behind its development in new disciplines provide important contributions to the understanding of future needs.

This academic genealogy allows the development of qualifying studies based on the training of new researchers. Academic genealogy was defined by Sugimoto as a quantitative study of the intellectual heritage online memorias. Each block represents a process and each arrow represents the information flow between processes. Various questions can be answered by building an academic genealogy. Sugimoto proposed five types of academic genealogies: honorific, egotistical, historical, paradigmatic, and analytical.

These categories are not mutually exclusive, and most academic genealogies can be classified into at least two of these types. In this work, we followed the development of protozoology in Brazil using a historical and paradigmatic approach. Systematic data collection was performed through the analysis of formal thesis orientation and was organised to create a chain of mentorships, resulting in the construction of our academic genealogy.

The methodology was based on the analysis of two sources of Brazilian academic information that allowed the tracing of scholarly interactions among researchers.

We identified 10, dissertations or theses with at least one descriptor related to protozoology Supplementary Table I. This quantity represented 1. The process handled incomplete or similar names using approximate string matching.

This process allowed us to identify 4, researchers related to the protozoology field. This threshold was considered suitable for manual inspection. Supplementary Table II presents the complete list of names obtained through this process. Process 4 - Identification of ancestors of the representative protozoologists - This process was performed recursively for each supervisor identified in the Lattes Platform.

First, the name of the supervisor was identified and associated with its Lattes CV. Then, the same approach was undertaken for the supervisors of the supervisors until the inability to identify a new supervisor was reached.

We identified researchers as the ancestors of the representative protozoologists. We identified 1, direct descendants from the group of representative protozoologists.

Process 6 - Construction of a scientist network - In this process, the researchers identified in processes 3, 4 and 5 were used to generate a supervisor network i. Duplicated names were processed manually. Process 7 - Classification of protozoologists - This process was performed by manual inspection of each researcher identified in the previous process.

Information from the protozoology field was associated with each of the 1, researchers using the Lattes Platform and academic repositories.

RESULTS Identification of scientists actively working in protozoology - This work aims to understand the past and present of Brazilian protozoology and the migration of scientists from protozoology to other fields and from other fields to protozoology.

Therefore, we accessed a data collection containing most of the Brazilian protozoologists from the CAPES database combined with the Lattes examination. By searching for the supervisors of actively working protozoologists, the supervisors of these supervisors, and so on, we identified the pioneers of this field in Brazil. Similarly, by searching for students trained by these actively working protozoologists, we identified other people currently working in the field.

A total of 10, Masters or PhD theses contained at least one such descriptor. This number corresponded to 1.

As expected, the number of scientists diminished when we increased the number of works supervised per researcher Fig. For operational reasons, it might not be possible to analyse in detail all the 4, researchers advisors and the relevant factors considered in the adopted methodology. The graph indicates how many scientists supervised a different number of theses containing at least one descriptor as a keyword. With the threshold adopted, important pioneers in the field of protozoology are included in the analyses, but we recognise that this empirical value might penalise early career researchers.

Identification of Brazilian protozoologists - We used the complete list of names in Supplementary Table II as a starting point to search for the people supervised by these people and vice versa i. Using automated analysis of the local CAPES thesis database, we found students whom these researchers supervised descendants. We did not search for students of these students because some of them were still settling, which could compromise our analysis.

As shown below, the analyses also allowed the identification of Brazilian supervisors who worked outside of protozoology and supervisors that were from other countries; thus, we could identify the seeds of Brazilian protozoology.

These analyses provided a list of 1, names that were manually inspected through the Lattes CV examination, following the pathway shown in Fig. Researchers studying the biology of protozoa or protozoahost interaction were considered protozoologists.

Additionally, scientists investigating protozoa vectors were considered protozoologists.

Journal of South American Earth Sciences Review Articles

In contrast, researchers working with protozoa but investigating the clinical aspects of diseases e. A: pathway followed during inspection with Lattes CV; B: frequency of each category described in A; a: scientists working or who worked in the past in protozoology in Brazil; b: scientists working in protozoology outside of Brazil that were advisors of Brazilians; c: scientists that did not work in protozoology during their PhD or establish a research interest in this field but were advisors of scientists that migrated to protozoology; d: persons who developed their PhD in protozoology but are now involved in activities other than science; e: scientists who developed their PhD in protozoology but established research in another field.

This discrepancy might have occurred for four different reasons: i misspelling of names, ii people who are no longer in science, iii foreign supervisors, and iv people who worked in protozoology before the Lattes CV was created. To include this last group in our analysis, we searched for these people in the CAPES database or in public repositories to identify their ancestors and the field in which they worked.

Finally, These analyses allowed the classification of researchers into five different categories: a scientists who are working or previously worked in protozoology in Brazil, b scientists working in protozoology outside of Brazil who were advisors of Brazilians, c scientists who did not work in protozoology during their PhD and did not establish a research interest in this field but were advisors of scientists who migrated to protozoology, d people who obtained their PhD in protozoology but were now involved in activities other than science, and e scientists who developed their PhD in protozoology but established a research interest in another field Supplementary Table III.

The frequency of each group is presented in Fig. Based on the data, names were identified as Brazilian protozoologists classified as group a. Identification of Brazilian protozoology pioneers - To identify researchers who were Brazilian protozoology pioneers, we first assumed that people who were awarded a PhD in protozoology in Brazil were not pioneers but that the pioneers would be their advisors.

Therefore, we concluded that the pioneers were among the scientists who were awarded PhD degrees in other fields and then migrated to protozoology or people who were awarded PhDs in protozoology outside Brazil and then came to our country to establish a group here.

Then, we determined in what year these researchers who did not receive a PhD in protozoology Fig. A: the graph shows the year in which each researcher who did not develop a PhD in protozoology published their first paper in this field. Red dots indicate the year that scientists who developed a PhD in protozoology outside of Brazil published their first paper in Brazil after their PhD; B: frequency of scientists immigrating into Brazilian protozoology according to the year of arrival.

For scientists who arrived from other fields, we searched the Lattes CV for the year of their first paper published in protozoology Supplementary Table V. Using this date as the year the scientist entered Brazilian protozoology, we plotted a graph of this incoming year for each of the scientists who arrived in protozoology Fig.

Additionally, we plotted a graph showing the frequency of this influx according to the year of migration Fig. From both analyses, it was clear that there were three waves of immigration into Brazilian protozoology: i up to and including , ii between , and iii between However, the drop observed after might be artificial because the collection of data is recent.

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Clinical and Experimental Evidences of Hydrogen Sulfide Involvement in Lead-Induced Hypertension

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The Unwinding: Determination of H2S in Plasma Plasma obtained from human patients and experimental animals was used for the determination of H2S as described previously [ 42 , 43 ].

Vascular Reactivity Rats' thoracic aortas were dissected in mm segments two rings. One of the rings had its endothelium mechanically removed.

The Krebs-Henseleit solution was kept at pH 7. Arterial rings were stretched under 1. After tissue equilibration, a control contraction to 96 mM of KCl was elicited. Once KCl maximum contraction was reached, tissue was rinsed with Krebs 3 times, 15 minutes each. Concentration-contraction curves were constructed, and the maximal response to PHE was measured. Then, the medium was removed and cells were washed twice in PBS. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay as described previously [ 46 ].

A standard curve was generated by incubation of nitrite solutions 0.

Plasma total NOx concentrations were determined using Griess reagents followed by reduction of nitrous species with vanadium chloride III [ 48 ]. Absorbance at nm was read at spectrophotometer Synergy 4, BioTek, Winooski, VT and NOx concentrations in plasma were calculated using a standard curve of sodium nitrite 1.

Determination of Lipid Peroxidation Lipid peroxidation was determined in rats' plasma through the formation of malondialdehyde MDA. MDA reacts with 2-thiobarbituric acid TBA and produces a colorimetric reaction that is measured by spectrophotometer at wavelength of nm [ 49 ].

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Briefly, Tubes were centrifuged for 10 min at g and the absorbance of the collected supernatant was measured at nm. For human parameters, comparisons were made using Student's t-test. Results 3.By searching for the supervisors of actively working protozoologists, the supervisors of these supervisors, and so on, we identified the pioneers of this field in Brazil.

From both analyses, it was clear that there were three waves of immigration into Brazilian protozoology: i up to and including , ii between , and iii between Scientometrics This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs.

Rev Paul Med Once KCl maximum contraction was reached, tissue was rinsed with Krebs 3 times, 15 minutes each. More From Kamalahkar Jegatheesan. Price revisited: on the growth of dissertations in eight research fields.

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